This work is a translation of Shaikh Abdul Aziz bin Baz`s book `Ad-Duroos Al-Muhimmah li-Ammatil-Ummah.` It contains concise lessons that explain the fundamental teachings of Islam. This book covers a wide range of basic information such as the meaning of Tawhid (Islamic monotheism), the categories and implications of Shirk (polytheism), the regulations of prayer, and Islamic morals and manners. As the title implies, these are truly essential lessons for everyone who is concerned with the correctness of his Islamic beliefs and acts of worship.